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"prostitution for money or gifts was quite unknown." Adultery
after marriage was also unknown. But there was great freedom in
the formation of sexual relationships before marriage (J. Stanley
Gardiner, _Journal Anthropological Institute_, February, 1898, p.
409). Much the same is said of the Bantu Ba mbola of Africa (_op.
cit._, July-December, 1905, p. 410).
Among the early Cymri of Wales, representing a more advanced
social stage, prostitution appears to have been not absolutely
unknown, but public prostitution was punished by loss of valuable
privileges (R.B. Holt, "Marriage Laws and Customs of the Cymri,"
_Journal Anthropological Institute_, August-November, 1898, pp.
Prostitution was practically unknown in Burmah, and regarded as
shameful before the coming of the English and the example of the
modern Hindus. The missionaries have unintentionally, but
inevitably, favored the growth of prostitution by condemning free
unions (_Archives d'Anthropologie Criminelle_, November, 1903, p.
720). The English brought prostitution to India. "That was not
specially the fault of the English," said a Brahmin to Jules
Bois, "it is the crime of your civilization. We have never had
prostitutes. I mean by that horrible word the brutalized servants
of the gross desire of the passerby. We had, and we have, castes
of singers and dancers who are married to trees--yes, to
trees--by touching ceremonies which date from Vedic times; our
priests bless them and receive much money from them. They do not
refuse themselves to those who love them and please them. Kings
have made them rich. They represent all the arts; they are the
visible beauty of the universe" (Jules Bois, _Visions de l'Inde_,
Religious prostitutes, it may be added, "the servants of the
god," are connected with temples in Southern India and the
Deccan. They are devoted to their sacred calling from their
earliest years, and it is their chief business to dance before
the image of the god, to whom they are married (though in Upper
India professional dancing girls are married to inanimate
objects), but they are also trained in arousing and assuaging the
desires of devotees who come on pilgrimage to the shrine. For the
betrothal rites by which, in India, sacred prostitutes are
consecrated, see, e.g., A. Van Gennep, _Rites de Passage_, p.
In many parts of Western Asia, where barbarism had reached a high
stage of development, prostitution was not unknown, though
usually disapproved. The Hebrews knew it, and the historical
Biblical references to prostitutes imply little reprobation.
Jephtha was the son of a prostitute, brought up with the
legitimate children, and the story of Tamar is instructive. But
the legal codes were extremely severe on Jewish maidens who
became prostitutes (the offense was quite tolerable in strange
women), while Hebrew moralists exercised their invectives against
prostitution; it is sufficient to refer to a well-known passage
in the Book of Proverbs (see art. "Harlot," by Cheyne, in the
_Encyclopaedia Biblica_). Mahomed also severely condemned
prostitution, though somewhat more tolerant to it in slave
women; according to Haleby, however, prostitution was practically
unknown in Islam during the first centuries after the Prophet's
The Persian adherents of the somewhat ascetic _Zendavesta_ also
knew prostitution, and regarded it with repulsion: "It is the
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