Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.1
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.2
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.3
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.4
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.5
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.1
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.2
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.3
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.4
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.5
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.6
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.7
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.8
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.9
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.10
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.11
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.1
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.2
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.3
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.4
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.1
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.2
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.3
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.4
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.1
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.2
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.3
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.4
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.5
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.6
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.1
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.2
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.3
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.4
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.5
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.6
PROSTITUTION-7.1
PROSTITUTION-7.2
PROSTITUTION-7.3
PROSTITUTION-7.4
PROSTITUTION-7.5
PROSTITUTION-7.6
PROSTITUTION-7.7
PROSTITUTION-7.8
PROSTITUTION-7.9
PROSTITUTION-7.10
PROSTITUTION-7.11
PROSTITUTION-7.12
PROSTITUTION-7.13
PROSTITUTION-7.14
PROSTITUTION-7.15
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2

covers women at confinement assures them an indemnity at this 

time equivalent to a large part of their wages. Married and 

unmarried mothers benefit alike. The Austrian law is founded on 

the same model. This measure has led to a very great decrease in 

infantile mortality, and, therefore, a great increase in health 

among those who survive. It is, however, regarded as very 

inadequate, and there is a movement in Germany for extending the 

time, for applying the system to a larger number of women, and 

for making it still more definitely compulsory. 

 

In Switzerland it has been illegal since 1877 for any woman to be 

received into a factory after confinement, unless she has rested 

in all for eight weeks, six weeks at least of this period being 

after confinement. Since 1898 Swiss working women have been 

protected by law from exercising hard work during pregnancy, and 

from various other influences likely to be injurious. But this 

law is evaded in practice, because it provides no compensatory 

indemnity for the woman. An attempt, in 1899, to amend the law by 

providing for such indemnity was rejected by the people. 

 

In Belgium and Holland there are laws against women working 

immediately after confinement, but no indemnity is provided, so 

that employers and employed combine to evade the law. In France 

there is no such law, although its necessity has often been 

emphatically asserted (see, e.g., Salvat, _La Depopulation de la 

France_, These de Lyon, 1903). 

 

In England it is illegal to employ a woman "knowingly" in a 

work-shop within four weeks of the birth of her child, but no 

provision is made by the law for the compensation of the woman 

who is thus required to sacrifice herself to the interests of the 

State. The woman evades the law in tacit collusion with her 

employers, who can always avoid "knowing" that a birth has taken 

place, and so escape all responsibility for the mother's 

employment. Thus the factory inspectors are unable to take 

action, and the law becomes a dead letter; in 1906 only one 

prosecution for this offense could be brought into court. By the 

insertion of this "knowingly" a premium is placed on ignorance. 

The unwisdom of thus beforehand placing a premium on ignorance 

has always been more or less clearly recognized by the framers of 

legal codes even as far back as the days of the Ten Commandments 

and the laws of Hamurabi. It is the business of the Court, of 

those who administer the law, to make allowance for ignorance 

where such allowance is fairly called for; it is not for the 

law-maker to make smooth the path of the law-breaker. There are 

evidently law-makers nowadays so scrupulous, or so simple-minded, 

that they would be prepared to exact that no pickpocket should be 

prosecuted if he was able to declare on oath that he had no 

"knowledge" that the purse he had taken belonged to the person he 

extracted it from. 

 


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