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Table of contents
PREFACE
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.1
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.2
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.3
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.4
THE MOTHER AND HER CHILD-1.5
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.1
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.2
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.3
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.4
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.5
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.6
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.7
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.8
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.9
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.10
SEXUAL EDUCATION-2.11
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.1
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.2
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.3
SEXUAL EDUCATION AND NAKEDNESS-3.4
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.1
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.2
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.3
THE VALUATION OF SEXUAL LOVE-4.4
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.1
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.2
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.3
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.4
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.5
THE FUNCTION OF CHASTITY-5.6
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.1
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.2
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.3
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.4
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.5
THE PROBLEM OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE-6.6
PROSTITUTION-7.1
PROSTITUTION-7.2
PROSTITUTION-7.3
PROSTITUTION-7.4
PROSTITUTION-7.5
PROSTITUTION-7.6
PROSTITUTION-7.7
PROSTITUTION-7.8
PROSTITUTION-7.9
PROSTITUTION-7.10
PROSTITUTION-7.11
PROSTITUTION-7.12
PROSTITUTION-7.13
PROSTITUTION-7.14
PROSTITUTION-7.15
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2

they had become firmly hardened into the conventional traditions 

and ideals of the Christian Church, had ceased to have any great 

charm or force for the people living in Christendom. Among the 

Northern barbarians, with different traditions of a more vigorous 

and natural order behind them, the demands of sex were often 

frankly exhibited. The monk Ordericus Vitalis, in the eleventh 

century, notes what he calls the "lasciviousness" of the wives of 

the Norman conquerors of England who, when left alone at home, 

sent messages that if their husbands failed to return speedily 

they would take new ones. The celibacy of the clergy was only 

established with the very greatest difficulty, and when it was 

established, priests became unchaste. Archbishop Odo of Rouen, in 

the thirteenth century, recorded in the diary of his diocesan 

visitations that there was one unchaste priest in every five 

parishes, and even as regards the Italy of the same period the 

friar Salimbene in his remarkable autobiography shows how little 

chastity was regarded in the religious life. Chastity could now 

only be maintained by force, usually the moral force of 

ecclesiastical authority, which was itself undermined by 

unchastity, but sometimes even physical force. It was in the 

thirteenth century, in the opinion of some, that the girdle of 

chastity (_cingula castitatis_) first begins to appear, but the 

chief authority, Caufeynon (_La Ceinture de Chastete_, 1904) 

believes it only dates from the Renaissance (Schultz, _Das 

Hoefische Leben zur Zeit der Minnesaenger_, vol. i, p. 595; Dufour, 

_Histoire de la Prostitution_, vol. v, p. 272; Krauss, 

_Anthropophyteia_, vol. iii, p. 247). In the sixteenth century 

convents were liable to become almost brothels, as we learn on 

the unimpeachable authority of Burchard, a Pope's secretary, in 

his _Diarium_, edited by Thuasne who brings together additional 

authorities for this statement in a footnote (vol. ii, p. 79); 

that they remained so in the eighteenth century we see clearly in 

the pages of Casanova's _Memoires_, and in many other documents 

of the period. 

 

The Renaissance and the rise of humanism undoubtedly affected the feeling 

towards asceticism and chastity. On the one hand a new and ancient 

sanction was found for the disregard of virtues which men began to look 

upon as merely monkish, and on the other hand the finer spirits affected 

by the new movement began to realize that chastity might be better 

cultivated and observed by those who were free to do as they would than by 

those who were under the compulsion of priestly authority. That is the 

feeling that prevails in Montaigne, and that is the idea of Rabelais when 

he made it the only rule of his Abbey of Theleme: "Fay ce que vouldras." 

 

A little later this doctrine was repeated in varying tones by 

many writers more or less tinged by the culture brought into 

fashion by the Renaissance. "As long as Danae was free," remarks 

Ferrand in his sixteenth century treatise, _De la Maladie 

d'Amour_, "she was chaste." And Sir Kenelm Digby, the latest 

representative of the Renaissance spirit, insists in his _Private 

Memoirs_ that the liberty which Lycurgus, "the wisest human 

law-maker that ever was," gave to women to communicate their 

bodies to men to whom they were drawn by noble affection, and the 

hope of generous offspring, was the true cause why "real chastity 

flourished in Sparta more than in any other part of the world." 


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